Welcome to the South African Society of Travel Medicine (SASTM) website.

The SASTM’s Mission is to guide the profession in all aspects relating to the practice of travel medicine, liaise with the travel industry, consult with relevant authorities, advise the public and collaborate nationally and internationally on all aspects relating to Travel Medicine. Click here to learn more.

SASTM Newsflash - Poliomyelitis update

EmailSASTM

Group Email

 

SASTM Newsflash

 

POLIOMYELITIS UPDATE

 

Afghanistan

-----------

- No new WPV case was reported in the past week.

- All 4 WPV cases this year [2013] were reported from Eastern Region.

The most recent WPV1 case had onset of paralysis on [23 Jul 2013],

from Kunar province.

- No WPV3 has been detected in Afghanistan since April 2010.

- No new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases

were reported in the past week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases in

2013 remains 3. The most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis on

[13 Mar 2013] (from Kandahar, Southern Region).

- Subnational immunization days (SNIDs) were held on [1-3 Jul 2013],

with resources focusing on strengthening campaign quality in Southern

and Eastern Regions.

 

Nigeria

-------

- No new WPV case was reported in the past week. The total of WPV1

cases for 2013 remains 43. The most recent WPV1 case in the country

had onset of paralysis on [23 Jul 2013] (from Borno).

- The most recent WPV3 detected in Nigeria was reported in November

2012.

- No new cVDPV2 cases were reported in the past week. The total number

of cVDPV2 cases for 2013 remains one (with onset of paralysis on [6

Jun 2013], from Borno).

- The next subnational Immunization Plus Days (IPDs) are planned

across northern states in September [2013].

 

Pakistan

--------

- One new case of WPV was reported in the past week, a WPV1 from FR

Bannu in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas [FATA], with onset of

paralysis on [27 Jul 2013]. This is the most recent case in the

country and brings the total number of WPV1 cases for 2013 to 25.

- The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2013 remains 12.

- FATA remains the major poliovirus reservoir in Pakistan and in Asia,

both due to WPV1 and cVDPV2.

 

Chad, Cameroon and Central African Republic

-------------------------------------------

- In Chad, no new WPV cases were reported in the past week. The most

recent WPV case had onset of paralysis on [14 Jun 2012] (WPV1 from

Lac).

- In Chad, no new cVDPV2 cases were reported in the past week. The

total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2013 remains 4 (the most recent

cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis on [12 May 2013] from Ennedi).

- In Cameroon, one new cVDPV2 case was reported in the past week,

bringing the total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2013 to 3. This new case

had onset of paralysis on [19 Jul 2013] (from Extreme-Nord).

- Central African Republic (CAR) continues to be at serious risk of

re-infection due to proximity with Chad, ongoing insecurity and

humanitarian crises, and destruction of health infrastructure. To

minimize the risk and consequences of potential re-infection, 2

subnational immunization campaigns were conducted in June and July

[2013]. A SNID is planned for September [2013] and a NID for October

[2013].

 

Horn of Africa

--------------

- 20 new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week in Somalia and one

in Kenya. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2013 is 142 (128 from

Somalia, 13 from Kenya, 1 from Ethiopia). The most recent WPV1 case in

the region had onset of paralysis on [30 Jul 2013] (from Somalia).

- The outbreak is spreading geographically in Somalia, with 2 new

states reporting cases: Galgadud and Gedo. Anticipation of this spread

has driven intense vaccination activities across the country, in an

effort to raise immunity.

 

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

-----------------------------

- WPV1 has been detected in 85 sewage samples from 27 sampling sites

in Israel, collected from [3 Feb to 18 Aug 2013]. Initially restricted

to southern Israel, WPV1 has now also been detected in environmental

sampling sites elsewhere in Israel, indicating transmission throughout

the country. A sampling site in Tulkarem in the West Bank has also

reported a positive sample, collected on [30 Jun 2013]. No case of

paralytic polio has been reported in either Israel or the West Bank

and Gaza.

- To interrupt WPV1 transmission, a supplementary immunization

activity (SIA) with bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) targeting

children up to the age of 9 years was initiated in the southern

district of Israel during the week of [5 Aug 2013]; since [18 Aug

2013], the SIA was expanded to all of Israel. The objective of the SIA

with OPV is to boost intestinal immunity in children vaccinated with

IPV only in order to rapidly interrupt wild poliovirus transmission.

- Following the positive sample from Tulkarem, subsequent samples in

the West Bank and Gaza have all tested negative. Discussions have

begun for a vaccination response to the positive sample in the West

Bank.

 

West Africa

-----------

- No new WPV cases were reported in the past week. The most recent

case in the region was a WPV1 from Tahoua province in Niger with onset

of paralysis on [15 Nov 2012].

- One new cVDPV2 was reported in the past week from Niger's Diffa

province, with onset of paralysis on [11 Jul 2013]. Niger has not

reported a case of cVDPV since 2011. Genetic sequencing has shown that

the virus is related to those seen in Cameroon, Chad and (Borno)

Nigeria.

- Multi-country immunization campaigns are planned in West Africa for

mid-October [2013] and mid-November, as well as subnational campaigns

in Niger in September [2013].

 

Communicated by: ProMED

 

In the past week since the last global update (20 Aug 2013), the number of cases of confirmed WPV associated disease has increased from 192 to 214. All but one of the newly confirmed cases have been outbreak associated, with the only new case confirmed from one of the 3 endemic countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan), occurring in Pakistan.

 

The number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases associated with the ongoing outbreak in the Horn of Africa (Somalia, Kenya, and now Ethiopia) has increased from 121 to 142 in the past week, with 20 newly confirmed cases in Somalia and one in Kenya.

 

Another worrisome occurrence is the continued spread of WPV northward in Israel and now to the West Bank. Fortunately to date there have not been any cases of paralytic polio resulting from the transmission of WPV in the region.

 

The occurrence of cases of polio associated with infection with circulating vaccine derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in Cameroon and Niger reflects the high risk of recurrent WPV associated disease should the WPV be introduced into these areas, as cVDPV cases occur in areas with suboptimal vaccination coverages.

 

 

 


 

South African Society of Travel Medicine (SASTM)

Phone: +27 (011) 025 3297
Fax: +27 087 9411350 / 1
E-mail: admin@sastm.org.za
Website: www.sastm.org.za
Postal address: SASTM, PO Box 8216, Greenstone, 1616, South Africa
Physical address: SASTM, 27 Linksfield Road Block 2 a Dunvegan Edenvale
Registered as a Nonprofit Organisation 063-296-NPO

DISCLAIMERS

SASTM LISTSERVE
The content and opinions are neither pre-screened nor endorsed by the SASTM. The content should neither be interpreted nor quoted as inherently accurate or authoritative.

SASTM NEWSFLASH
The information provided in SASTM Newsflashes is collected from various news sources, health agencies and government agencies. Although the information is believed to be accurate, any express or implied warranty as to its suitability for any purpose is categorically disclaimed. In particular, this information should not be construed to serve as medical advice for any individual. The health information provided is general in nature, and may not be appropriate for all persons. Medical advice may vary because of individual differences in such factors as health risks, current medical conditions and treatment, allergies, pregnancy and breast feeding, etc. In addition, global health risks are constantly evolving and changing. International travelers should consult a qualified physician for medical advice prior to departure.

Scroll to Top